Топ-100

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One-time pad

A One-time pad is a method of encryption. It is a symmetrical cipher, which means the same key is needed for encryption and decryption. A one time pad uses a key that is either as long or longer than the message it encrypts. The key must only be ...

                                               

Plaintext

In cryptography, plaintext is the information which the sender want to transmit to the receiver. Before computers, plaintext meant text in the language of the communicating parties. Since computers, the definition has been expanded. It now includ ...

                                               

Pretty Good Privacy

Pretty Good Privacy is a computer program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication. PGP is often used for signing, encrypting and decrypting electronic mails to increase the security of e-mail communications. It was originally creat ...

                                               

Proof-of-work system

A proof-of-work system is a system where finding a solution to a given problem is difficult and / or expensive, but verifying the solution to the given problem is simple and / or cheap.

                                               

RC2

In cryptography, RC2 is a symmetric-key block cipher. Designed by Ronald Rivest in 1987. "RC" stands for "Rivest Cipher", or alternatively, "Rons Code". RC2 is a 64-bit block cipher with a variable key size and using 18 rounds. Rounds are arrange ...

                                               

RC4

In cryptography, RC4 is one of the most common software stream ciphers. It is used in popular protocols like Secure Sockets Layer and WEP. RC4 is known for being simple and quick, but attacks are likely to happen when the start of the output keys ...

                                               

RC5

In cryptography, RC5 is a simple symmetric-key block cipher. Designed by Ronald Rivest in 1994, RC5 is a parameterized algorithm with a variable block size, a variable key size, and a variable number of rounds. "RC" stands for "Rivest Cipher", or ...

                                               

RC6

In cryptography, RC6 is a symmetric-key block cipher derived from RC5. RC6 is a parameterized algorithm with a variable block size, a variable key size, and a variable number of rounds. RC stands for "Rivest Cipher", or alternatively, "Rons Code" ...

                                               

Secret sharing

Secret sharing is used as a term to refer to ways of sharing a secret among many people. Each person knows part of the secret that is shared, but a number of people need to cooperate to rebuild the secret. The knowledge of one person alone is not ...

                                               

SHA hash functions

In cryptography, the Secure Hashing Algorithms are a group of cryptographic hash functions released by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The algorithms take an input and produce a hash value. The length of the hash depends on th ...

                                               

Session key

A session key is a single-use symmetric key used for encrypting all messages in one communication session. A closely related term is traffic encryption key or TEK, which refers to any symmetric key that is used to encrypt traffic messages. Typica ...

                                               

SP-network

In cryptography, an SP-network, or substitution–permutation network, is a series of linked mathematical operations used in block cipher algorithms such as AES, 3-Way, Kalyna, Kuznyechik, PRESENT, SAFER, SHARK, and Square. Such a network takes a b ...

                                               

Stream cipher

In cryptography, a stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext bits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher bit stream using an exclusive-or operation. In a stream cipher the Plaintext digits are encrypted one at a time, and the trans ...

                                               

Substitution cipher

A substitution cipher is a form of cryptography. In a substitution cipher, a rule is used to change each letter of the message, one at a time. The rule says to replace or "substitute" each letter with another letter from the alphabet. For instanc ...

                                               

Symmetric-key algorithm

Symmetric-key algorithms is a method in cryptography. It is when the keys for decryption and encryption are exactly the same shared secret. You can generate the secret randomly, or from a password, or through a secret key-exchange procedure like ...

                                               

Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security Protocol and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer, are cryptographic protocols that provide security and data integrity for communications over TCP / IP networks such as the Internet. Several versions of the protocols ar ...

                                               

Triple DES

In cryptography, Triple DES is a block cipher created from the Data Encryption Standard cipher by using it three times. Triple DES is also known as TDES or, more standard, TDEA. When it was discovered that a 56-bit key of DES is not enough to pro ...

                                               

Twofish

In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key lengths up to 256 bits. In 1997, the NIST announced for competition to choose a successor to DES to be known as AES, Twofish was one of the five finali ...

                                               

Weak key

In cryptography, a weak key is a key which when used with a specific cipher, makes the cipher behave in some undesirable way, and simplifies breaking the ciphertext. Weak keys usually represent a very small fraction of the overall key space, whic ...

                                               

Degree (angle)

In mathematics, a degree is a common way to measure plane angle. It is written with the symbol ∘ {\displaystyle ^{\circ }}, where 360 ∘ {\displaystyle 360^{\circ }} corresponds to the entire circle. It is not an SI unit. The SI uses radian to mea ...

                                               

Conic section

In geometry, when a cone and a plane intersect, a conic section results. Preliminary In elementary geometry, cones are assumed to be right circular. Circular means that the base is a circle and right means that the axis passes through the centre ...

                                               

Circle

A circle is a round, two-dimensional shape. All points on the edge of the circle are at the same distance from the center. The radius of a circle is a line from the centre of the circle to a point on the side. Mathematicians use the letter r for ...

                                               

Ellipse

An ellipse is a shape that looks like an oval or a flattened circle. In geometry, an ellipse is a plane curve which results from the intersection of a cone by a plane in a way that produces a closed curve. Circles are special cases of ellipses, o ...

                                               

Hyperbola

A hyperbola is a type of conic section. Like the other three types of conic sections - parabolas, ellipses, and circles - it is a curve formed by the intersection of a cone and a plane. A hyperbola is created when the plane intersects both halves ...

                                               

Convex regular 4-polytope

In mathematics, a convex regular 4-polytope is 4-dimensional polytope which is both regular and convex. These are the four-dimensional analogs of the Platonic solids and the regular polygons. These polytopes were first described by the Swiss math ...

                                               

Hypercube

In geometry, a hypercube is an n -dimensional analogue of a square and a cube. It is a closed, compact, convex figure whose 1-skeleton consists of groups of opposite parallel line segments aligned in each of the spaces dimensions, perpendicular t ...

                                               

Euclids Elements

Euclids Elements is a large set of math books about geometry, written by the ancient Greek mathematician known as Euclid in Alexandria circa 300 BC. The set has 13 volumes, or sections, and has been printed often as 13 physical books, rather than ...

                                               

Laws of Form

Laws of Form is a book by George Spencer-Brown published in 1969. It is about logic, mathematics, and philosophy. The mathematical systems that Spencer-Brown presented in the book are known by the names "calculus of indications", "distinction cal ...

                                               

Principia Mathematica

For Isaac Newtons book containing basic laws of physics, see Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica The Principia Mathematica is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell. It was pub ...

                                               

Fallacy

A fallacy is an incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric. It gives a result which is not valid or lacks soundness. In mathematics, a fallacy can occur when the reasoning violates the condition of its applicability. Fallacies are either formal fal ...

                                               

Appeal to emotion

Appeal to emotion is a logical fallacy. It happens when the argument is designed to trigger an emotional response instead of giving reasons. An example of this would be "we have to donate to charity X, think of the children!", where instead of gi ...

                                               

Appeal to novelty

Appeal to novelty is a fallacy where a person would claim that Subject B is better than Subject A because Subject B is newer, or that "newer is better". This fallacy is understandable because people find new discoveries everyday. Since new discov ...

                                               

Appeal to tradition

Appeal to tradition is a common fallacy. In this fallacy, an idea is claimed to be right because it is the way it was often done in the past. The appeal takes the form of "this is right because weve always done it this way". An example of appeal ...

                                               

Argument from authority

Argument from authority or appeal to authority is a form of argument or reasoning that could become a fallacy if it is misused. In informal reasoning, the appeal to authority is an argument of the form: A is an authority on a particular topic A s ...

                                               

Argument from ignorance

An argument from ignorance, or appeal to ignorance, is a fallacy in informal logic. It says something is true because it has not yet been proved false. Or, that something is false if it has not yet been proved true. This is also called a negative ...

                                               

Association fallacy

An association fallacy is a logical fallacy that occurs when someone says that a quality of one thing must applies to another just because they share a similar quality or belief. It can be used in a positive or negative way. It follows the genera ...

                                               

Begging the question

Begging the question requires two or more ideas. Each of these ideas may or may not be true. The speaker of these ideas tries to show that one idea is true by saying a second idea proves it, but the second idea is only true if the first idea is t ...

                                               

Cherry picking

Cherry picking is when someone picks the case which supports his opinion. For example, suppose twenty studies have been done on a new medicine and 19 say it works, but one says it does not work. To "cherry pick" is to use the one failed study to ...

                                               

Denying the correlative

Denying the correlative is a mistake in logic where a person tries to create a third possibility where there are only two. It is based on the concept of correlative conjunctions, pairs of statements where one statement must be true and the other ...

                                               

False analogy

A False analogy is an informal fallacy. It applies to inductive arguments. It is an informal fallacy because the error is about what the argument is about, and not the argument itself. An analogy proposes that two concepts which are similar A and ...

                                               

False dilemma

False dilemma, also called the either-or fallacy, us vs. them fallacy, black-or-white fallacy, false dichotomy, or the fallacy of false choice, is a mistake in logic that allows only two possibilities when more than two exist. For example, there ...

                                               

Argument from false premises

An argument from false premises is a line of reasoning which can lead to wrong results. A false premise is an untrue proposition that forms part of the basis of a logical syllogism. Since the premise is not correct, the conclusion drawn may also ...

                                               

Hasty generalization

Hasty generalization is an informal fallacy of generalisation by making decisions based on too little evidence or without recognizing all of the variables. In statistics, it may mean basing broad conclusions of a survey from a small sample group. ...

                                               

Ignoratio elenchi

Ignoratio elenchi is the informal fallacy of presenting an argument that may in itself be valid, but does not address the issue in question. "Ignoratio elenchi" can be roughly translated by ignorance of refutation, that is, ignorance of what a re ...

                                               

Ipse dixit

Ipse dixit is a Latin phrase which means "He, himself, said it". In logic, ipse dixit is known as the bare assertion fallacy. One form of the fallacy may be summarized as follows: Conclusion: Therefore, A is true or false or whatever X claims it ...

                                               

Just-World phenomenon

The Just-World phenomenon is when people think that because bad things happen to someone, they did something to deserve the bad things. The concept is a lot like Karma, except it is more like a popular superstition instead of a religious belief. ...

                                               

Moral equivalence

Moral equivalence is a term used in political arguments or debate. It is an informal fallacy. The phrase describes a kind of indirect proof, but the reasoning is flawed because it distorts issues. It draws comparisons between different things to ...

                                               

Moving the goalposts

Moving the goalposts or shifting the goalposts is an idiom which means changing the terms of a debate or a conflict after it has started. The phrase describes changing the target or goal of a process. In a dispute or a competition, the idiom expl ...

                                               

No true Scotsman

A no true Scotsman fallacy, or appeal to purity, is a fallacy where the one arguing says or writes that all people belonging to a certain group have the same trait, and those in that group who do not share that trait are not really part of that g ...

                                               

Non sequitur

Non sequitur means "does not follow." It is a type of logical fallacy: a bad argument that makes no sense. It is defined as a deductive argument that is invalid. The argument could have true premises, but still have a false conclusion. The term n ...

Encyclopedic dictionary

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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