Топ-100

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Poverty line

The poverty line, which is also sometimes called the poverty threshold, is the smallest amount of money a person or a family needs to live on, to buy what is needed and is a line which is a gulf between the rich and the poor. It is the imaginary ...

                                               

Adverse possession

Adverse possession is a rule in property law. This rule says that if property is not being used by its owner while another person is using the property, this other person becomes the new owner of the property. To get these rights, the adverse pos ...

                                               

Damage deposit

A damage deposit or deposit is a sum of money that is paid when one rents an item. It is paid to ensure the owner that it is returned in good condition. It is very common with rented accommodation. There it may also be called a tenancy deposit or ...

                                               

Ownership

Ownership means total possession or control of property, which may be a business, an object, land or real estate, intellectual property or some other kind of property. The rights of ownership are: Benefiting from the economic returns of what is o ...

                                               

Personal property

Personal property means property that consists of object that can be moved from one place to another. In the common law systems personal property may also be called chattels. There it is distinguished from real property, or real estate. In the ci ...

                                               

Private property

Private property is a concept used in law, which is defined as a certain type of thing which is owned and controlled by an individual or a group separate from the state. Private property differs from public property, where such property belongs t ...

                                               

Rule against perpetuities

The Rule against Perpetuities is one of the most complicated rules in property law and wills and trusts. In general, the rule states that a gift of a will not be enforced if the subject of the gift is to be given to a person who can not be known ...

                                               

Tragedy of the anticommons

The tragedy of the anticommons is a new phrase invention of Michael Heller. It says, that things can go bad if too many people have rights on a shared thing. It is related to the phrase tragedy of the commons, which says that things can go bad if ...

                                               

Behavioral economics

Behavioral economics is a smaller part of economics that combines what we know about psychology with what we know about economics. Normally, economics does not consider the way humans actually think, but instead, simplifies decision-making to mak ...

                                               

Right to an adequate standard of living

The right to an adequate standard of living is a fundamental human rights. It is part of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that was accepted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, 1948. Everyone has the right to a s ...

                                               

Tax

Tax is money that people have to pay to the government. The government uses the money it gets from taxes to pay for things. For example, taxes are used to pay for people who work for the government, such as the military and police, provide servic ...

                                               

Customs

Most countries have a Customs Service. The customs service works mostly at ports, airports and the countries borders to make sure that people do not bring things into the country which are banned, or that the right amount of tax has been paid on ...

                                               

Direct tax

A direct tax is a tax paid directly to the government by a person or organization. A direct tax may not be passed on to another person or entity but must be paid by the entity responsible for the tax. A direct tax is different from an indirect ta ...

                                               

Excise stamps of Russia

Excise stamps of Russia are a kind of Russian revenue stamps. They were issued according to the governmental order of the Russian Federation. On 14 April 1994 they adopted resolution number 319 "Introduction of excise stamps in the Russian Federa ...

                                               

Excise tax

An excise or excise tax is an indirect tax charged on certain goods. As an indirect tax, they are charged by the producer or the merchant who then has to pay the government. For the same reason they are also not considered a sales tax. Excise tax ...

                                               

FATCA agreement between Canada and the United States

The FACTA agreement is an agreement between Canada and the United States that allows the United States to exercise financial control over American citizens and other US persons who are resident in Canada. According to this agreement the Canadian ...

                                               

Gross income

Gross income in United States income tax law is money or anything of value gained from all sources. Gross income is the amount of income before any tax deductions or allowances. In the Law of the United States, 26 U.S. Code § 61, "Except as other ...

                                               

Income tax in the United States

In the United States, people have to pay income taxes to the United States government, most state governments, and many local governments. This means that people have to pay taxes to these governments, based on how much money they earn.

                                               

Internal Revenue Service

The Internal Revenue Service is the part of the Federal government of the United States responsible for collecting taxes and enforcing tax laws. The IRS decides how much tax is owed and collects the revenue on a regular basis. The IRS is the larg ...

                                               

IRS tax forms

The Internal Revenue Service issues tax forms to people and organisations who pay tax in the United States. These documents are used by taxpayers to report information about their finances. This includes information about income, which is require ...

                                               

Pigovian tax

A Pigovian tax is a type of tax that takes into account negative effects of things produced. This concepts tries to reconcile both the interests of the producer and the social interests of the consumer. For example, a producer of plastic bottles ...

                                               

Sin tax

A sin tax is when the government taxes things that are considered to be bad for society. For example, if the government increases taxes on alcohol and cigarettes, this will make them more expensive. In economics, if a normal good becomes more exp ...

                                               

Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Ratified on February 3, 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to impose a federal income tax. This allows the federal government to collect a tax on personal income, no matter where that income came f ...

                                               

Social Security (United States)

In the United States, Social Security is the term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program. That program is run by the Social Security Administration. The original Social Security Act was signed into law by President F ...

                                               

Tariff

A tariff is a tax charged on goods as they pass between one country and another. A tariff can be placed on goods being brought into the country, and goods being exported from the country to another. It is usually done to make money for the govern ...

                                               

Tax advantage

Tax advantage refers to the financial gain which applies to certain accounts or investments. These include accounts that are, by statute, tax-reduced, tax-deferred, or tax-free. Governments establish tax advantages to encourage private individual ...

                                               

Tax deduction

A tax deduction is a way to reduce the amount of income that is subject to a tax. Tax deductions and tax credits both lower the amount of money a person has to pay in taxes. But they do it differently. A tax deduction is subtracted from a the gro ...

                                               

Tobin tax

A Tobin tax is a tax on all trade of currency across borders. The first idea that it could be useful came from the economist James Tobin. The tax is meant to put a penalty on short-term speculation in currencies. The proposed tax rate would be lo ...

                                               

Value Added Tax

Value Added Tax: is often called by its initial letters "VAT" or" V.A.T.”. It is the English name of a tax that is added to things sold in the European Union. It is like a sales tax that is charged in some US States. The tax is paid every time go ...

                                               

Classical economics

Classical economics is the first modern school of economic thought. Its main developers include Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus and John Stuart Mill.

                                               

Environmental economics

Environmental economics is a domain of economics that looks at problems of the environment from an economical perspective. Natural resources, such as clean water are limited, because of pollution. They are also seen as free public goods. This mea ...

                                               

Keynesian economics

Keynesian economics describes the economics theories of John Maynard Keynes. Keynes wrote about his theories in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. The book was published in 1936. Keynes said capitalism is a good econom ...

                                               

Neo-Keynesian economics

Neo-Keynesian economics is a school of macroeconomic thought that was developed after World War II from the writings of John Maynard Keynes. A group of economists, attempted to interpret and formalize Keynes writings, and to synthesize it with th ...

                                               

Neoclassical economics

Neoclassical economics is an economic theory that argues for markets to be free. This means governments should generally not make rules about types of businesses behaviour, who may make things, who may sell things, who may buy things, prices, qua ...

                                               

Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism is a term for different social and economic ideas. Originally the term was used by a group of liberals who helped shape social market economy in the mid 20th century. Classic liberalism characterized by free market trade, deregulati ...

                                               

Trade

To trade is to willingly give things or services and get other things or services in return. For example, a person giving a thing must find another person who wants to get that thing. The giver gets something back in return. A trade is also calle ...

                                               

Entrepot

An entrepot is a trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying a tariff. This is often at a profit. Sometimes it is more convenient to sell to an entrepot than to travel long distances along a trade route. The entrepo ...

                                               

Fair trade

Fair trade is a social movement which tries to help people who make things in developing countries. The movement helps people to work in better conditions and helps them get more money for what they make. These things give workers the opportunity ...

                                               

Foreign direct investment

Foreign direct investment is the participation of one countrys resources in another countrys business. Many times people and technology are transferred between the two countries. Most foreign direct investment happens between the most developed c ...

                                               

Kula ring

The Kula Exchange takes place on eighteen islands, including the Trobriand Islands, and involves thousands of people. The traders involved travel by canoe over hundreds of miles to exchange their Kula valuables. These valuables can be in the form ...

                                               

London Livery Company

The City of London Livery Companies began as trade associations or trade guilds, which controlled who could carry out certain jobs in the City of London.

                                               

Multilateral trade

The term multilateral trade negotiations initially applied to negotiations between General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade member nations conducted under the auspices of the GATT and aimed at reducing tariff and nontariff trade barriers. In 1995 t ...

                                               

Purchase

Purchasing is the buying of goods or services. An item that has been bought is called a purchase. The opposite of a purchase is a sale. In common usage, the shorter word "buy" is typically used when shopping, rather than the word "purchase". Howe ...

                                               

Silent trade

Silent trade, or barter, is when traders trade without talking to each other. This was used in many parts of ancient Africa. Silent bartering was used during 500 A.D to 1500 A.D. and probably had a much longer history. To do a silent barter, one ...

                                               

Trade secret

A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or a collection of information which is not generally known, invented or created, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. In ...

                                               

Pareto efficiency

Multi-criteria optimization, or multiobjective optimization is a way of solving a mathematical or economic problem where many different parameters need to be changed to get one of the best possible solutions to the problem. The result of this is ...

                                               

Welfare

Welfare is an idea from economics and Social Security. The idea is that everyone should have a minimal living standard. People who cannot reach this standard will be supported, usually by the state. Using welfare, everyone has their basic needs c ...

                                               

George V

George V was King of the United Kingdom. He was the first British monarch with the family name Windsor. His father was Edward VII. George was born in 1865. He was in the Royal Navy when he was twelve, he left the Navy to become king. George was c ...

                                               

Oinam family

"Oinam" is a family name belonging to the Meitei ethnicity. "Oinam Apokpa" is a clan ancestral deity worshipped by the people of the family, following Meitei religion.

                                               

Child support

Child support is continued payment performed by a parent for the financial benefits of children following marital separations, divorces or ends of civil unions. Child maintenance is paid either directly or indirect by obligors toward an obligee f ...

Encyclopedic dictionary

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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